Category Archives: Of Interest to Law Students

Building Grit, Tenacity, and Perseverance While Teaching Legal Research

Kristina Niedringhaus of Georgia State University College of Law Library and Carolyn Broering-Jacobs of Cleveland State University, Cleveland Marshall College of Law gave a spirited and honest discussion about the emergence of grit as a best practice in education before a packed hall at the 107th AALL Annual Meeting & Conference. Their presentation, called Building Grit, Tenacity, and Perseverance While Teaching Legal Research, synthesized the scientific research behind grit, and encouraged attendees to share their own experiences implementing grit in legal research instruction.

Grit is the display of perseverance and passion in the attainment of long-term goals.  The research of psychologist Angela Duckworth – among West Point cadets, Wharton School of Business graduates, National Spelling Bee champions, and other high-achieving-groups – indicates that, across demographics, grit is more important in determining success than intelligence or standardized test score. According to Ms. Duckworth, grit is measurable.  Presenters Niedringhaus and Broering-Jacobs administered the Duckworth Grit Scale to the attendees, and, as you would expect in a hall of librarians, the Grit Scale confirmed we were quite the gritty bunch.

Aside from quantifiable data, a student’s grittiness reveals itself in other ways.  For instance, an optimistic explanatory style of negative events correlates to having grit.  Also, students whose words and actions espouse a growth mindset show more resolve and determination in the face of failure than those who demonstrate a fixed mindset.  The growth mindset student willingly risks failure and accepts it as part of the hard work necessary to grow her intelligence and talent.  Conversely, the fixed mindset student believes her intelligence and talent cannot be improved, so she sees no point in working hard, least of all if there is the chance of failure.  This dichotomy between the growth mindset and fixed mindset tracks closely along cultural lines: students of Western cultures believe that struggle indicates they are less capable, while those of Eastern cultures believe the opposite, embracing struggle as a positive event.


There are no scientific studies that indicate grit can be taught.  But, because it is the key to embracing hard work and failure, and learning over the long-term, presenters Niedringhaus and Broering-Jacobs, in the highlight of their discussion, turned it over to the attendees to share anecdotes of teaching grit.  These fell within such categories as staging an interrupting event or a complication in the research strategy, and allowing searches that lead nowhere or to an unclear answer.  But, a couple of anecdotes hit upon truly unique ways of teaching grit.  One professor brought bow ties to class and taught grit by showing students how to tie a bow tie.  Another professor recorded her efforts to answer a research problem devised by her students, capturing her frustration and failures, but also her determination and strategies for success as she worked through the problem.

Presenters Niedringhaus and Broering-Jacobs gave an amazing presentation that left the attendees with practical ways of instilling grit in their classroom instruction.  This made Building Grit, Tenacity, and Perseverance While Teaching Legal Research one of the most talked about presentations from the 107th AALL Annual Meeting & Conference.

~ Cory M. Lenz ~

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ALR Student’s Corner: North Carolina Corporation Law and Practice Forms

Practice Forms provide law students and attorneys with practical advice on various procedural aspects of litigation. Form books supply attorneys with the boiler-plate language that is standard for a particular legal form. The attorney can then use this language when drafting a business form and can fill in the specific information related to his client’s company. Many times they give step-by-step instructions and other useful tools that both save the attorney time and aid him in drafting legal documents. The form book, North Carolina Corporation Law & Practice Forms by James Snyder, Jr. (Thompson/West, 2003), does all of these same things for various business entities across the business cycle, from starting up to winding down.


For the past year, I’ve been interning at a company’s legal department. I love working in the corporate realm and plan to continue to pursue a career in corporate law. Accordingly, I chose North Carolina Corporation Law & Practice Forms because I thought it would be helpful to have a solid understanding of corporate practice forms – not only for my current internship, but also for my future legal career.  This form book is divided into the following three chapters: 1) Business Corporations, 2) Incorporation, and 3) Other Business Entities. The back of the book also contains the following three appendices – Comparison of Forms of Entity – Nontax and Tax Considerations Matrices, Incorporating Your Business in North Carolina, and Nonprofit Corporations. The book begins with a detailed table of contents, and the back pocket contains a cumulative supplement that was issued in December 2011. The supplement contains updates for the first and third chapters of the book.

Chapter One: Business Corporations is divided into 141 subtopics and their corresponding forms, listed and organized chronologically by the events in a corporation’s life, beginning with an Agreement to Incorporate.  Chapter 2: Incorporation is divided into the categories Business and Nonprofit Corporations and Nonprofit Corporations. Each category is further divided into different subtopics, beginning with incorporation and ending with merger and dissolution. This helps the attorney select the form pertinent to her client’s transaction. Chapter Three: Other Business Entities is divided into the following eight categories: 1) Limited Liability Companies, 2) Limited Partnerships, 3) Limited Liability Partnerships, 4) Registered Limited Liability Limited Partnerships, 5) Professional Corporations, 6) Professional Limited Liability Companies, 7) General Partnerships, and 8) Cooperative Associations. These categories are further divided into 73 different subtopics; an organization, seen throughout the resource, which helps the attorney locate the right form for his client’s business entity and tailor it toward the particular facts of the transaction.

North Carolina Corporation Law & Practice Forms can be found on WestlawNext by drilling down in accordance with the following navigational path: “Browse: All Content” > “Secondary Sources” > “North Carolina” > “Forms” > “North Carolina Corporation Law & Practice Forms.”  It can also be located in the Charlotte School of Law library in the “Reference: Carolinas” section by using the following call number: KFN7613.A65 S69 2003.

To demonstrate how easy it is to search and navigate this form book, let’s conduct a hypothetical search.  Suppose I needed to look for a standard form for the Articles of Dissolution for a Limited Liability Company.  Having drilled down to North Carolina Corporation Law & Practice Forms on WestlawNext, I am ready to search within the resource.  Relevant search strings might be “articles of dissolution limited liability company;” “articles of dissolution” & “limited liability company;” or “articles of dissolution.”  The result page from each search string returns the correct form for the Articles of Dissolution for a Limited Liability Company in North Carolina, specifically § 3:18 Articles of Dissolution.  But, it’s worth noting that the more specific search string – the second one that made use of the connector “&” – returned more top results that were the most relevant. § 3:18 Articles of Dissolution includes such information as the name of the company, date of the filing of the Articles of Organization, reason for dissolution, effective date, and signature of the person filing the form. Having located the right form, I can appropriate much of the boiler-plate language and fill-in only the information specific to my client’s business or transaction.

North Carolina Corporation Law & Practice Forms is an extremely useful resource for corporate attorneys who need to quickly find the correct form to address their business clients’ various transactional needs.

~ Rebecca Reynolds, L’14 ~

 Class Advisor – Cory M. Lenz, Esq.

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CSL Spotlight: Enhancing Learning Outcomes


CSL is leading the higher education industry in enhancing learning outcomes and raising standards for experiential learning to prepare our students to be practice-ready.

Below is a front page article in North Carolina Lawyers Weekly about the recent change to ABA Standard 303(a) which now requires students to take 6 credits of experiential learning courses, and features interviews with Charlotte School of Law Deans Camille Davidson, Kama Pierce, and Carlos Pauling.

Law schools are sizing up recent changes to American Bar Association accreditation standards

Recent changes to the American Bar Association’s law school accreditation rules should mean minor adjustments for most of North Carolina’s law schools, if first impressions of several school leaders are correct. On Aug. 11 in Boston — after six years of comprehensive review — …

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ALR Student’s Corner: Admissibility of Evidence in North Carolina

Does “Admissibility of Evidence in North Carolina” Pass the Relevancy Test?


The Overview

The Admissibility of Evidence in North Carolina, part of the North Carolina Practice Series, contains practical information about the admissibility of evidence, witness testimony, hearsay, authentication, and other overlapping considerations.  The target audience of this practice guide is trial attorneys.  It is updated annually so that it may continue to comprehensively cover the most important evidentiary topics in North Carolina.

The topics are further divided into subtopics throughout each of the 27 chapters.  The subtopics enable a trial attorney to find exactly what he or she is looking for with ease.  The Admissibility of Evidence in North Carolina is available in print, as well as, electronically on WestlawNext.

To gain access to the practice guide on WestlawNext, first, look under the “All Content” tab on the homepage.  Next, click the link for “Secondary Sources.”  This will open a new screen, which arranges secondary sources by type, state, and topic.  Under the “By State” category, click on the “North Carolina” link.  The link accesses secondary sources that pertain to North Carolina.  Under the category titled “Texts & Treatises,” click on the link for “North Carolina Texts & Treatises.”  The link will access texts and treatises pertaining to North Carolina.  On the “North Carolina Texts & Treatises” page, there is a link to the Admissibility of Evidence in North Carolina practice guide.  Selecting it takes you to its table of contents.


The practice guide has one general index and table of contents.  The index highlights ten sections of evidentiary subjects, from abuse of hearings to affidavits.  When accessing any of these sections, a trial attorney will find the relevant evidentiary rule, a brief explanation of the rule, as well as, cited case law.  If a trial attorney is trying to challenge the admission or exclusion of evidence, the cited case law is helpful in trial preparation.  The cited case law also enables a trial attorney to see how another attorney argued an evidentiary rule and how the court ruled on that argument.  This helps a trial attorney better prepare his or her case and devise a litigation strategy.  So, even though there are no sections in Admissibility of Evidence in North Carolina dedicated to forms, practice tips, or step-by-step litigation strategies, the abundant annotations to relevant case law more than compensates.

The Search    

To test the reliability of the Admissibility of Evidence in North Carolina, I decided to do a search on hearsay exceptions.  I used the following search string to access the exceptions: hearsay /s except!  The search turned up 58 results that address hearsay exceptions.  The search results identified each chapter and title and previewed the relevant section from each.  Having this information enables a trial attorney to select the appropriate result without having to scavenger hunt for it.

For example, if a trial attorney is trying to get clarification of the rule for “Ancient Documents” under the hearsay exception, the attorney will find the information under § 17.3.  Accessing § 17.3 provides a link to the North Carolina evidentiary rule—N.C.R. Evid. 803(16)—that corresponds to the hearsay exception for ancient documents.  Also, under the same section, there is a link to N.C.R. Evid. 901(b)(8), which addresses the requirement of authentication or identification (see below).


The practice guide synthesizes the rule related to ancient documents and hearsay and provides case law and statutory authority that supports the rule.  The annotations allow a trial attorney to expand his or her research with still more, relevant primary authority binding in North Carolina.

As a future trial attorney in North Carolina, I see Admissibility of Evidence in North Carolina becoming an invaluable resource as I tackle evidentiary issues, devise litigation strategies, file motions and submit arguments before the court on behalf of a client.  Therefore, I highly recommend this practice guide to trial attorneys in North Carolina because it passes the relevancy test.

~ Shernika Smith, L’16 ~

 Class Advisor – Cory M. Lenz, Esq.

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ALR Student’s Corner: North Carolina Real Estate with Forms



The real estate industry is broken down into two broad categories:  commercial real estate (i.e. office buildings, retail buildings) and residential real estate (i.e. single family, multi-family).  In 2013, within the Charlotte area alone, there were over 35,000 residential property transactions.  In many commercial and residential transactions, a broker is involved and there are standard forms approved by state associations, such as the North Carolina Association of Realtors and the North Carolina Bar Association, used in the transaction.  There are also many times when buyer or seller’s counsel will draft the necessary documents for the transaction.  Law firms generally have “go-by’s” which are standard templates that provide boilerplate language that serve as a starting point for transactions.  However, if you are practicing on your own and do not have a library of go-by’s, a practice guide is a great place to get both comprehensive coverage of a topic, as well as, forms to serve as the basis for your transaction.

About North Carolina Real Estate with Forms

North Carolina Real Estate with Forms (Thompson/West, 2012) by Edmund T. Urban, A. Grant Whitney, Jr. and Nancy Short Ferguson contains two volumes and is organized to parallel the process of the real estate transaction from the purchase or sale to closing and recording.  The last update from 2012 is contained in a supplement in the back of Volume 1 and a separate supplement for Volume 2.

Volume 1 covers the various aspects of commercial and residential real estate sales contracts and options, and includes an extensive amount of information on real estate title searches and examinations and special considerations in the closing process.  Additionally, Volume 1 includes a Summary of Contents and a Table of Contents for both volumes, which is helpful to determine where your broad topic or subtopic may be located within the two volume series.

Volume 2 continues with its coverage of title searches and examinations and concludes with a comprehensive overview of the closing process and required documents.  Additionally, Volume 2 includes two tables and an index.  The first is a Table of Laws and Rules, which points to federal and state statutes and treatises and lists their location within the series.  The second is a Table of Cases.  The cases are arranged alphabetically, and the table lists their location within the series.  Finally, Volume 2 includes a detailed Index.  The Index is more comprehensive than the Summary and Table of Contents.  For instance, if you were looking for a form for the rescission of a mortgage and relying on only the Table of Contents, you would be hard pressed to determine the relevant chapter and title.  However, the Index lists the topics “Rescission” and “Mortgages and Deeds of Trust,” which also has the subtopic “Rescission,” both of which lead to the relevant chapter and title, specifically Chapter 21: Defects, Liens, and Encumbrances.

Each chapter in North Carolina Real Estate with Forms lists the forms available for each represented topic.  It is important to check the most current supplement for updates to the forms.  For example, the Offer to Purchase and Contract Form 2-T was completely revamped in 2011 as North Carolina moved to being a due diligence state for residential property purchases.  But, the 2009 edition of this Practice Series includes the OLD Form 2-T, while the new Form 2-T is included in the 2012 supplement.

North Carolina Real Estate with Forms can be found in the “Reference: Carolinas” section at the Charlotte School of Law library with the following call number: KFN7526.U73. More information about this title and other titles in the North Carolina Practice Series can be found by searching the Charlotte School of Law library catalog with the search string “north carolina practice series,” or by visiting the library’s LibGuides, specifically the North Carolina Legal Research LibGuide.


North Carolina Real Estate with Forms is a valuable practice series for any attorney involved in a commercial or residential real estate transaction.  The series gives a comprehensive overview and consideration of each aspect of the law that could impact the real estate transaction.

~ Traci Belk, L’14 ~

 Class Advisor – Cory M. Lenz, Esq.

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October Happenings

Never fear, we’ve got plenty of tricks and treats for this bewitching month!

HALLOWEEN: Misfit’s Witches Ball, Corn Mazes, pumpkin patches, hay rides, Scarowinds, Bootanical, Pumpkin Patch Party at Romare Bearden Park , GUTS Pumpkin Carving Contest, Trunk or Treat, Queen City Ghost ToursRich and Bennett’s Halloween Pub Crawl, Great Pumpkin Fest at Carowinds, Spirits of Rosedale

KISS 95.1’s Grave Digger’s Ball

Performing Arts: A Mother’s Love, Charlotte Ballet: Dangerous Liaisons, Rouge, Things that go bump in the night, To Kill a Mockingbird, The Vagina Monologues, For the Love of Harlem, Just do it – Man’s Best Friend, Nabucco, Africa Umoja

Music: For the love of Harlem, Old 97’s, Taking Back Sunday, Chris Tile & Edgar Meyer, St. Paul and the Broken Bones, Nick Carter & Jordan Knight, Charlotte Classic Jazz Festival, Midatlantic Music Fall Festival, Ne-Yo, Wynton Marsalis, Calvin Harris, Silent Disco, Macy Gray, Steep Canyon Rangers, Darius Rucker with David Nail & A Thousand Horses, Marketa Irglova, Los Lobos

Chews&Booze: Bachtoberfest, Amazing Race Bar Crawl, Oktoberfest at Waldhorn Restaurant, Bibliofeast, Dining for Friends Finale, Great Grapes! Food and Wine Festival,  National Taco Day, Taste of the World, Chili Cook Off, BBQ and Blues Festival, Mecktoberfest,  Clips Beer and Film Tour, Pink on the Lawn event at the Charlotte Observer with food trucks, All you can eat oysters at Georges Brasserie

Sports: Charlotte Hornets, Charlotte Checkers

Races: Race for the Cure, Runway 5k, Walk with Me, Walk like MADD, Charger Challenge 5k and Fun Run, Rocktoberfest, Hopebuilders 5k, Avon Walk for Breast Cancer

Just for laughs: Last Comic Standing, Tommy Davidson, Carlos Mencia

For the kids: The Lion and the Little Red Bird, 101 Dalmatians, Disney on Ice: Princesses & Heroes, JAARS Day, Penguins 3D, Omimeo, Day out with Thomas, Myers Park Library Presents: Children’s Pumpkin Party, Book Fair, Bootanical

For the “furry” kids: Barktoberfest, Humane Society’s Ties and Tails Gala

Other fun events: NC Legal Geeks, Charlotte Magazine Bridal Show,  Goodguys 21st Southeastern Nationals, Hairwalk: The Movement, Bank of America 500, 2014 Gantt Symposium featuring Common, An Evening with Bob Woodruff, Latin American Festival, Renaissance Festival, Hola Charlotte Festival, Kaleidoscope Cultural Arts Festival, Carolina Balloon Fest, Autumn Jubilee, Charlotte Fall Home Show, 18th Annual Carnival at St. Ann’s Parish, Soul Food: National Author and Diverse Panels, Elizabeth Home and Garden Tour, Pretty in Pink Fashion Show, Chocolate for a Cure, Wine Women and Shoes, Lights!Camera!Fashion!, Creative Loafing’s Best of Charlotte Cocktail Party, Geek Gala, Relive the Legacy of the Appalachian Trail, Teresa Caputo, Festival of Praise Tour, Healthy Home Market Grand Opening

If your sense of adventure leads you outside the city limits, check out these attractions:

NC State Fair in Raleigh, NC. Why not ride the rails?

Tweetsie Railroad Ghost Train in Blowing Rock, NC

Drive along the Blue Ridge Parkway to soak up some beautiful foliage sights.

Blue Ridge Pride Festival in Asheville, NC

BBQ Festival in Lexington, NC

~Jamie Sunnycalb~

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Chuck Lifford: A Success Story

The following is an article featuring one of our alumni:

(Photo Mike Hensdill/The Gaston Gazette) Chuck Lifford retired from the Gastonia Police Department after 30 years and now works with Bogle and Anthony as an attorney.

His first year as an attorney marks a second career for Chuck Lifford. The retired assistant Gastonia police chief is the new kid in the practice with attorneys Gus Anthony and Ed Bogle.

Lifford credits the defense attorneys with taking him in and teaching him the ropes. He said he can’t think of a better way to spend retirement.

“I want to enjoy every day and be able to make a difference,” he said.

Lifford joined the Gastonia Police Department right out of college. He worked his way up to captain during his tenure. Switching from a beat cop to an administrator came with new challenges that Lifford said he began to enjoy. As retirement approached, Lifford started considering law school. He heard during a Rotary meeting about night school for prospective attorneys and decided to go for it.

Lifford retired from the police department in 2012 and finished his degree the next year. He interned at the Gaston County District Attorney’s Office and passed the bar exam earlier this year. Lifford’s decision to go into private practice comes with a little razzing from former co-workers.

“A lot of the officers I worked with before tease me about going to the dark side,” he said.

Lifford said a police officer, prosecutor and defense attorney are all charged with the same task — following the Constitution and uncovering the truth.

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According to Professor Jason Huber, Associate Professor at Charlotte School of Law:

I taught Chuck in Civil Procedure.  From the first class to the last, he demonstrated a sharp intellect, a passion for the rule of law, and a keen ethical compass.  The combination of these traits and is unparalleled work ethic make him not only a great lawyer, but person as well.  It was a pleasure to have him in class and I am happy he found his second calling as a lawyer.

We at CSL are proud of Chuck and wish him the best as he develops his law career!

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